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The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in April–May 1945.In Teaching the Holocaust (2015), Michael Gray offers three definitions of the Holocaust.Discussions at the Wannsee Conference make it clear that the German "final solution of the Jewish question" included Britain and all the neutral states in Europe, such as Ireland, Switzerland, Turkey, Sweden, Portugal, and Spain.Twenty-three senior physicians and other medical personnel were charged at Nuremberg, after the war, with crimes against humanity.The Germans set up six extermination camps in occupied Poland: Auschwitz-Birkenau (established October 1941); Majdanek (October 1941); Chełmno (December 1941); and in 1942 the three Operation Reinhard camps at Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka.Saul Friedländer writes: "Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly institution or professional association in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews." Some Christian churches "declared that converted Jews should be regarded as part of the flock, but even then only up to a point".

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While groups such as the Roma and disabled were viewed as inferior and targeted by Nazi euthanasia and sterilization policies, the Nazis saw the Jews as an "anti-race", writes Bloxham, "a parasitical, polluting people".Throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, Jews were subjected to antisemitism based on Christian theology, which blamed them for killing Jesus.Even after the Reformation, Catholicism and Lutheranism continued to persecute Jews, accusing them of blood libels and subjecting them to pogroms and expulsions.Menegele's experiments included placing subjects in pressure chambers, testing drugs on them, freezing them, attempting to change their eye color by injecting chemicals into children's eyes, and amputations and other surgeries.Other experiments took place at Buchenwald, Dachau, Natzweiler, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen, and elsewhere.

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